Sunday 28 May, 2023 |

Blood group differences increase the risk of COVID-19? Research raises questions.

Blood group differences increase the risk of COVID-19? Research raises questions.
Blood group differences increase the risk of COVID-19 - Pixabay

Is there a special group of blood that helps the rapid spread of COVID in our body? Whose blood of that group, COVID is becoming more deadly in his/her body? In the body of patients who have blood from other groups, isn't COVID becoming so terrible? Getting some resistance?

A recent study raised these questions. The study was published in the international medical journal New England Journal of Medicine.

The study was conducted in two European countries, Spain and Italy. Coronavirus infection and death toll are two countries at the forefront. The researchers claim that the study found a link between certain genes and chromosomes in which corona  infections become more severe in patients. There has been an uproar in the scientific community over the fancy observation.

Blood group A more helpless and O more defensive


The researchers claim that they have found that the Covid-19 virus is becoming more and more dangerous in the body of blood group A (positive and negative).At least 45 percent more than other groups of blood carriers. But in the body of ‘O’ group (positive and negative) blood carries, the Covid-19 virus is not becoming so terrible. Like other groups, coronavirus infections occur in at least 75% of blood carriers in the 'O' group. They also claim that even in the bodies of AB and B group (positive and negative) blood carriers, the Covid-19 virus is not as dangerous as the blood carrier patients in this group. However, AB and B group blood is not as effective in preventing the rapid onset of COVID in our body. The power of AB group is less than that of 'O' group. The power of 'B' group is less than that of AB group. Researchers have examined the genomes of more than eight million people in Spain and Italy who are in critical condition. He compared them to many other people who were not affected by COVID-19.

A hypothesis, not a theory / model


However Anahita Dua, a professor of medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, said: It cannot be said with certainty that only certain blood groups play a role in making corona infections worse in our body. A correlation has just been found. Only at the gene-level.There could be many more reasons. But it can also be one of the reasons. So there is no reason for the blood carriers of the group to become unnecessarily panicked. I won't say it again,'O' group blood carrier can be very comfortable. This is a hypothesis. No theory. Not a model. A similar study was conducted during the SARS virus attack. From November 2002 to July 2003, it infected 8098 people in Hong Kong. It was also found that the blood carriers of 'O' group were more susceptible to the virus than other blood groups. Long before that, however, various internationally recognized studies have shown that many diseases, such as malaria and hepatitis, become more contagious or dangerous in patients with certain blood groups. Blood groups also play a big role in the rise of diseases like cancer.

What is blood group and why?


There are basically four types of blood groups in the human body. ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘AB’ and ‘O’.Each group can be of two types. Positive and negative. As a result, there are a total of eight types of blood groups in the human body. For example, A positive, A negative, O positive, O negative etc. All of this is called the ABO Blood Group. The gene that controls the ABO blood group is present in our ninth chromosome. Just as a river breaks into a tributary of a river, so does each blood group have a specific gene. A gene for group A, B gene for group B, etc.

Whether these four blood groups will be positive or negative depends on another type of blood circulation system in our body. That is RH(Relative Humidity). This group also has many sub-groups. The gene that controls this group of blood cells is in our first chromosome. There are many types of this group. The most important of these is R-HD. If someone has RHD positive group blood in his body then his blood group will be either A positive or B positive. If not, it will be AB positive or O positive. And if someone has RHD negative group blood in his body then his blood group will be either A negative or B negative. If not, it will be AB negative or O negative. Most people have a positive blood type. So it is very difficult for us to get the blood of the negative group.

Blood group we get from mother, father. We and our environment are not responsible for this. However, it is not yet possible for scientists to know for sure why our blood groups are different, what specific roles they play in the structure of our body. Very little is known about how helpful or resistant they are to the onslaught of various viruses and diseases.

Immunologist Carl Landsteiner in Austria discovered different blood groups. He later received the Nobel Prize. Earlier, at the very beginning of the 19th century, James Blundell, a well-known physician in London, The blood of another 10 people were given to 10 patients to save their lives. Which is now a very common medical procedure called ‘ blood transfusion’.But of the 10 people Blonddale changed their blood, only five survived. The other five could not be saved.Blandell still did not know that people could not take everyone's blood. He also did not know that people can only take the blood from certain groups.

There are eight different blood groups, including ABO and RH, each with specific antibodies and different antigens. These antibodies are part of our body's natural immune system. And antigens are made up of sugars and proteins. Which form a lining on top of red blood cells.

Blood antibodies of different groups can detect antigens that enter the body from outside. And they immediately send messages to the body's immune system to destroy them.That's why if any group of blood from anyone enters the body of another person, it becomes dangerous for the patient. Suppose I have A positive group of blood in my body. If the doctor gave me B or AB group blood, I would die. This is because B antibodies are naturally formed in the blood of this positive group in my body. That antibody will detect the B group blood antigen taken from someone else's body as soon as it is seen. And immediately tell our body's immune system to kill them. As a result, my blood will clot. As a result, blood circulation will be disrupted. Blood will come out through the nose and mouth. Shortness of breath will continue to increase. The result will be death.

In the same way, if I had B-positive blood in my body, then the A antibody would be made normally. As a result, even then, if I was given A or AB group, my blood would clot. As a result, blood circulation was disrupted. Blood would come out through the nose and mouth. Increasing shortness of breath would result in death. As a result, in the first case I will survive if I am given A or O group blood, in the second case I will survive if I am given B or O group blood.

Blundell did not know this and was able to save only five out of 10 patients.


Two hypotheses

Sanhita Dua, a professor at Massachusetts General Hospital, said two hypotheses have been put forward in an attempt to explain why corona infection has become more serious in the case of group A carriers.

According to eminent hematologist Hari Heron, a hypothesis suggests that blood clotting in this group is slightly higher than normal. And that is almost normal in the blood of the group. It has been found that corona infections become more severe in patients whose blood clots form. This may be one of the possible reasons why researchers have found that infections in the blood carrier of this group of blood become more frightening.

The second hypothesis is that the virus is trying to infect another person by carrying antigens from the infected blood (group A). In that case, if the second person is a blood carrier of the 'O' group, then the antibodies in his blood can immediately recognize all the foreign antigens. As a result, the virus does not spread to the second person.

Not panic,exploration


As the researchers wrote in the research paper, eminent hematologists and blood transfusion experts in almost the same tone said that there is no reason to panic unnecessarily. Barely 6/7 months. It is not yet possible to fully understand COVID. Observations and research are being conducted on the basis of as much information as possible. Having to run. To know and understand how the virus works in our body, where, and how much damage it causes. As a result, various types of information are coming out. Which will be proved true later